It is important to recall that, historically, information and communication technologies enabled the administration and surveillance of colonised territories, as well as the propagation of narratives that legitimised extraction and dispossession. Off the Network: Disrupting the Digital World. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. Consider the saying that “data is the new oil”, something that can be naturally extracted or mined since it exists in the “ground” of social life. Datafication entails that in a modern data-oriented landscape, an organization's survival is contingent on total control over the storage, extraction, manipulation and extraction of data and associated information. An organization that implements datafication is said to be datafied. “Raw Data” is an Oxymoron. 26 Real-World Use Cases: AI in the Insurance Industry: 10 Real World Use Cases: AI and ML in the Oil and Gas Industry: The Ultimate Guide to Applying AI in Business. A. Kitchin, R. (2014). Poovey, M. (1998). The reason derives from the underlying way in which data is produced so that it can be counted. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. doi:10.1086/517897. Simply stated, datafication is the set of tools, processes, and technology used to create data-driven organisations and teams. Organizations are using them to get benefits. 3.Datafication for Personal Use. Whether it’s a turnover issue or optimizing the career path of your employees, drilling into your workforce data can reveal a clearer picture of the situation at hand, so you … Datafication is helping us to understand the world in a way which was never done before. The datafication enabled by things like self-tracking devices, psychometric algorithms, and workplace tracking systems arguably interferes with the minimal integrity of the self as a self (Couldry and Mejias, 2019), which can be understood as the very basis of autonomy. They are a fundamental new kind of multi-sided market focused on datafication, a market that brings together platform users who generate data, data buyers (advertisers and data brokers), and platform service providers who benefit from the release, sale, and internal use of data (Rieder and Sire, 2014; Cohen, 2018). Cryptocurrency: Our World's Future Economy? We’re also used to hearing new phrases that both startups and established companies would love us to adopt as industry naming. Apparently, it is now. Data Colonialism Through Accumulation by Dispossession: New Metaphors for Daily Data. The Biopolitical Public Domain: The Legal Construction of the Surveillance Economy. London: John Murray. Datafication is a technological trend turning many aspects of our life into data [1] which is subsequently transferred into information realised as a new form of value. 1 Simply said, it is about taking previously invisible process/activity and turning it into data, that can be monitored, tracked, analyzed and optimized through analytics. Key areas of business, such as logistics—the management of the flow of goods and information—have matured into complex practices thanks to datafication. London: The Royal Society. There are competing interests set up by datafication, which means regulatory nuances have to be worked out. X    Text recognition, segmentation and categorisation of norms together constitute the datafication of the Early Modern Ordinances. In this model, data is used to redefine how content is created by datafication being used to inform content rather than recommendation systems. What is the difference between big data and Hadoop? As part of a larger social media logic, it shows characteristics of a widespread secular belief. Deep Reinforcement Learning: What’s the Difference? New Media & Society, 12(3), 347–364. H    R    New technologies are now available to ingest, store, process and visualise that data. A war for the social resources of the world is currently being waged between the social quantification sectors of China and the United States, principally (Couldry and Mejias, 2019). Apparently, it is now. Datafication is a modernization of many aspects of our life in computerized data [1] and transforming this information into new forms of value. This infrastructure and those processes are multi-layered and global, including mechanisms for dissemination, access, storage, analysis and surveillance that are owned or controlled mostly by corporations and states. Lately, questions have emerged about the implications of datafication—and artificial intelligence based on processing data—for the concept of autonomy (Hildebrandt, 2015). F    doi:10.1057/jit.2015.5. Datafication is also used as a term to describe a logic that sees things in the world as sources of data to be “mined” for correlations or sold, and from which insights can be gained about human behavior and social issues. Retrieved from https://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/facpub/810/, Cohen, J. E. (2013). Legal theory offers an alternative critique of datafication, arguing that datafication threatens the basic rights of the self. Datafication is rooted in problematic ontological and epistemological claims. This UKRI-funded network project brings together a … Kelly, K. (2016). Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=3252543. Journal of Information Technology, 30(1), 75–89. The first domain of datafication was business, not social life. London: Routledge. Datafication is a new word that means turning aspects of our lives into computerized data. (2013). Rouvroy, 2015, on “data behaviorism”). #    The question of who is doing this codifying of life into datafied realities acquires extreme importance at this point. The Panoptic Sort. Conflicts of Interest and incentives to bias: A Microeconomic critique of Google’s tangled position on the Web. Redwood City: Stanford University Press. K    Malicious VPN Apps: How to Protect Your Data. If datafication within capitalism is a process of abstracting and extracting life across various spaces to generate profit (with ancillary benefits for governments), then where does the wealth generated by this extraction go, and why? Internet Policy Review 2019. Businesses across nearly all industries can use datafication to improve critical processes. After converting processes to data, they can be tracked, monitored, and optimized. Espeland, W., & Sauder, M. (2007). If there’s one word that describes the new age of data that we seem to be living in, it’s probably “datafication”. Chicago: Chicago University Press. doi:10.1177/1527476418796632. and even non-state (terrorists, hackers) actors, all of which can produce, collect and analyse data for different purposes. You can think of datafication as the use of new digital technologies to liberate knowledge associated with your day-to-day physical activities by analysing data associated with such activities. First Monday, 18(10). More broadly, disciplines like political economy, legal studies, and decolonial theory approach the social quantification sector’s work from different angles, each drawing on critical data studies. Prof. Sonia Livingstone and her team have listed 64 works on children’s digital practices and data privacy, and their list is a valuable resource in the study of the datafication of childhood. Nonetheless, datafication creates practical openings for proposals for regulation. (2019). The Deadly Life of Logistics. The transformations of social life that are inherent to datafication are so many, and so consequential for our orientation to the social domain, that Alaimo and Kallinikos write of a “computed sociality” (2017, p. 177; see also Van Dijck, 2013, p. 5, on “platformed sociality”). Nieborg, D., & Helmond, A. Lane, V. Stodden, S. Bendo, & H. Nissenbaum (Eds. Computing the Everyday: Social Media as Data Platforms. Online technologies are no longer tools that parents can choose to ignore. Kitchin even argues that “data” should be replaced with another Latin term, capta—what is captured—to refer to how, practically, data is harvested from life. “Intelligent information is a great way to reduce waste and increase efficiencies, and that’s really what the IoT provides.” What is datafication It gives a kind of hidden sense of pride in having … Marx in the Age of Digital Capitalism. Legal theorist Julie Cohen in particular has argued for the importance of holding onto the concept of privacy in some form as a defense versus the chilling effects of continuous data collection and processing (Cohen, 2013). S    We’re also used to hearing new phrases that both startups and established companies would love us to adopt as industry naming. An organization also uses data for decision making, strategies and other key objectives. Straight From the Programming Experts: What Functional Programming Language Is Best to Learn Now? Race After Technology. Datafication is part of The Works' continued commitment to understanding how the Australian social media landscape works. Data colonialism, to be exact, is a situation of where datafication has enabled Big Tech to appropriate our data for capitalistic use. I    (2019). This term is often employed by scholars seeking to critique such logics and processes. Data colonialism, to be exact, is a situation of where datafication has enabled Big Tech to appropriate our data for capitalistic use. Organizations require data and extract knowledge and information to perform critical business processes. Terms of Use - So, how does datafication relate with this blog? As a result, families and children are increasingly becoming “datafied”—that is, their … Tallahassee: Florida State University College of Law. O    In J. doi:10.1177/1461444813481195. Cowen, D. (2014). Cambridge: Polity. Even though these processes are relatively new, the basic idea of datafication—that the flow of human life could be converted into discrete data—has a long history. The End(s) of Critique: Data Behaviourism versus Due Process . It is a consequence of the rapid datafication … This understanding of datafication as somehow a natural process is surprisingly common, as evident in this sentence from an information booklet distributed by the UK’s Royal Society: “Machine learning is a brand of artificial intelligence that allows computer systems to learn directly from examples, data and experience” (2019, n.p.). Apparently, it is now. Is that even proper English? Datafication enthusiasts also often assume a self-evident relationship between data and people, subsequently interpreting aggregated data to predict individual behavior. Thatcher, J., O’Sullivan, D., & Mahmoudi, D. (2017). Reinforcement Learning Vs. Datafication as we know it today has a long history, going back at least as far as the industrial revolution and efforts then to capture statistical knowledge of the state, society and its population, and then to use that knowledge to come up with better institutions and practices of management and intervention. Chinese Journal of Communication, 12(3), 1-16. http://doi.org/10.1080/17544750.2019.1614964, Cohen, J. E. (2000). By naming a process (datafication), we also invoke its limits. Just like the colonial project involved the separation of the world into centres and peripheries, datafication as a form of rationality also creates peripheral (or paranodal, cf. In contrast, datafication is argued to the use of digital technologies with a focus on unbedding knowledge of physical objects and separating them from the data that is linked with them. (2014). The data revolution: big data, open data, data infrastructures & their consequences. Y    Privacy Policy, Optimizing Legacy Enterprise Software Modernization, How Remote Work Impacts DevOps and Development Trends, Machine Learning and the Cloud: A Complementary Partnership, Virtual Training: Paving Advanced Education's Future, IIoT vs IoT: The Bigger Risks of the Industrial Internet of Things, MDM Services: How Your Small Business Can Thrive Without an IT Team, 6 Examples of Big Data Fighting the Pandemic, The Data Science Debate Between R and Python, Online Learning: 5 Helpful Big Data Courses, Behavioral Economics: How Apple Dominates In The Big Data Age, Top 5 Online Data Science Courses from the Biggest Names in Tech, Privacy Issues in the New Big Data Economy, Considering a VPN? Datafication is implicated in more than just social media apps and content sharing platforms. New Haven; London: Yale University Press. This buzzword describes an organizational trend of defining the key to core business operations through a global reliance on data and its related infrastructure. Datafication continues and extends these functions. This ‘datafication’ can be a source of value for many different actors – states, businesses big and small, civil society organisations and individuals. Rouvroy, A. Organizations are using them to get benefits. Barocas, S., & Nissenbaum, H. (2014). Various forms of resistance—from the ineffective but strategic opting out of individual platforms, to a larger awareness of ourselves as the objects of datafication—can contribute to creating challenges and alternatives to the growth of datafication. Datafication is a fairly new concept associated with our recent data revolution. 5 Common Myths About Virtual Reality, Busted! In the 21st century, such technologies are powerful environmental forces that shape our self-conception, interactions, and even understandings of reality. First Monday, 17(5). How This Museum Keeps the Oldest Functioning Computer Running, 5 Easy Steps to Clean Your Virtual Desktop, Women in AI: Reinforcing Sexism and Stereotypes with Tech, Fairness in Machine Learning: Eliminating Data Bias, From Space Missions to Pandemic Monitoring: Remote Healthcare Advances, Business Intelligence: How BI Can Improve Your Company's Processes. Dematerialisation highlights the ability to separate the informational aspect of an asset/resource and its use in context from the physical world. (2019). Datafication exposes variability and enhances value: Companies use data to create better products, airlines use data to plan flights at times… Datafication leads also to improved decision-making, e.g., companies like Proctor and Gamble use their data to plan expansions into new markets… (2011) analyzed the relationships between personality and different types of twitterers, finding that While the modes, intensities, scales and contexts of data colonialism are different from those of historic colonialism, the function remains the same: to dispossess. Paradoxically, much-used metaphors that equate datafication to other extractive processes help to further obscure, not uncover, these power relations. A. Next, we consider the specific elements that make up datafication, and the perspectives from which different disciplines have approached datafication’s consequences, with specific emphasis on datafication by corporations for economic profit. Kenneth Cukier and Victor Mayer-Schöenberger introduced the term Datafication to the broader lexicon in 2013. Couldry and Mejias means that the new forms of datafication, through social media, search engines etc, have allowed our social life to become an open resource for extraction – there for companies to use. New Media & Society, 16(2), 195–211. Thus with datafication, we are taking the informal everyday world and converting it into a virtual structured format that can be used within a formal system. Datafication is a new term used to describe the process of turning an existing business into a “data business.” In HR it refers to our increasing ability to use Talent Analytics to understand more and more about our people, HR practices and processes, and external demographics. Even today, the amount of data generated by commerce exceeds the amount of data generated by the datafication of human life (Chairman’s Letter in IBM, 2018). Businesses realized they could rely on a steady stream of electricity to run manufacturing plants at night, invest in motors and robots to improve productivity, and eventually invest in computers and other tools to change the way they did business. Digitization is used in several meanings as said but for us it has two meanings which are closely related with each other. For starters, digitization is creating a digital (bits and bytes) version of analog/physical things such as paper documents, microfilm images, photographs, sounds and more. Classification Situations: Life-Chances in the Neoliberal Era. For example marketers are analysing Facebook and Twitter data to determine and predict sales. That is really what the internet of things provides. A. The analytical value of the term “datafication” lies in its ability to name the processes and the frameworks by which a new form of extractivism is unfolding in our times, via the appropriation of data about our lives. In a world where datafication seems continuous and multi-layered, there is clearly a need for a more contextual approach to the norm of privacy (Nissenbaum, 2013). Datafication is the term used to describe how aspects of life are being turned into computerized data; this information simultaneously transforming into new forms of value. (2012). Datafication refers to the collective tools, technologies, and processes used to transform an organization into a data-driven enterprise. Join nearly 200,000 subscribers who receive actionable tech insights from Techopedia. Gandy, 1993; Peña Gangadharan, 2012). Fuchs, C., & Mosco, V. For instance, software or platform studies can address issues of technological configuration and affordances, while a critical political economy approach can address issues of commodification and exploitation. Fourcade, M., & Healy, K. (2013). Q    ), Privacy, Big Data and the Public Good. The term “data”, however, is relatively clear, at least in its contemporary usage. Scholars, regulators, journalists, activists, and other stakeholders publish in the journal in, http://doi.org/10.1080/17544750.2019.1614964, https://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/facpub/810/, https://harvardlawreview.org/2013/05/what-privacy-is-for/, https://www.ibm.com/annualreport/assets/downloads/IBM_Annual_Report_2018.pdf, http://computationalculture.net/what_is_in_pagerank/, https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/projects/machine-learning/, https://works.bepress.com/paul_schwartz/10/. (2017). In M. Hildebrandt & E. de Vries (Eds. Is that even proper English? Making data colonialism liveable: how might data’s social order be regulated? Big Data & Society, 7(1). The beneficiaries of this are very often corporations, but also states and sometimes civil society organisations and communities. This is better understood in a longer historical perspective, which decolonial critiques provide. Make the Right Choice for Your Needs. The term “data”, however, is relatively clear, at least in its contemporary usage. What that something is, and what the processing comprises, are matters that need to be put into context. W    Most of these approaches attempt to explain in some way how big data is “made” in terms of its relationship to time, context, and power (Boellstorff, 2013). This interpretation frames datafication as a social process configured around new relations (“data relations”) designed to optimise the generation of data from social life (compare to Zuboff, 2015, 2019). Schwartz, P. (1999). What is datafication? “Datafication” is fairly new concept, which describes how we “render into data many aspects of the world that have never been quantified before” as defined in the The Rise of Big Data: How It’s Changing the Way We Think About the World, by Kenneth Cukier and Viktor Mayer-Schoenberger. Since most writers on data also care about what happens to human life, the term “datafication” has quickly acquired an additional meaning: the wider transformation of human life so that its elements can be a continual source of data. In terms of actors, we have corporations, states, and various civic (activists, journalists, etc.) Big Data and 5G: Where Does This Intersection Lead? The term “datafication” implies that something is made into data. In the economic realm, datafication processes are most visible in the proliferation of digital platforms providing a wide range of financial services. This article belongs to Concepts of the digital society, a special section of Internet Policy Review guest-edited by Christian Katzenbach and Thomas Christian Bächle. The term “datafication” implies that something is made into data. 44–75). This is considered by the Ericsson report to be a relatively new process, and one that is driven by interaction between digital and physical objects. This is an outcome of the fact that digital technologies have become woven into the human experience, changing the way we shop, communicate, bank, travel, … Available at: https://www.ibm.com/annualreport/assets/downloads/IBM_Annual_Report_2018.pdf Last accesed: 26 November 2019. Tech Career Pivot: Where the Jobs Are (and Aren’t), Write For Techopedia: A New Challenge is Waiting For You, Machine Learning: 4 Business Adoption Roadblocks, Deep Learning: How Enterprises Can Avoid Deployment Failure. To make sense of this complexity, various research disciplines can help us zoom in or out on different intersections of players and infrastructures. doi:10.1177/2053951718820549, Santos, B. de S. (2016). The goal of this article is to develop an empirically grounded framework to analyze how new technologies, particularly those used in the realm of datafication, alter or expand traditional organizational control configurations. The datafication of HR refers to our increasing ability to use analytics to understand more about our people, HR processes, and external demographics, as well as how they relate to bottom-line business outcomes. Epistemologies of the South: Justice Against Epistemicide. London: Routledge. Definition - What does Datafication mean? P2P lending platforms are a classic example of datafication for personal use. What is ‘Datafication’? Redwood City, California: Stanford University Press. Couldry and Mejias means that the new forms of datafication, through social media, search engines etc, have allowed our social life to become an open resource for extraction – there for companies to use. Pentland, A. This means collecting data within every part of your organisation: HR data, financial data, social media data, sales data, customer data and even data from devices that … How Can Containerization Help with Project Speed and Efficiency? Computational Culture: A Journal of Software Studies, (2), 1–28. On one side, there are the interests of the individual who generates data or owns a device that produces the data; on the other, there are the interests of the owners of the infrastructure through which data flows and is collected (the social quantification sector). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. When data is capital: Datafication, accumulation, and extraction. Online technologies are no longer tools that parents can choose to ignore. For example marketers are analysing Facebook and Twitter data to determine and predict sales. Philosophy & Technology, 31(2), 213–233. This “land grab” employs a whole arsenal of quantification weapons, from artificial intelligence, facial recognition, and new e-commerce models, to cyberwarfare, chip manufacturing, and multinational agreements regulating intellectual property. New York: St Martin’s Press. Thus, data extraction—from workers and consumers—provides a stream … One way that user experience has been improved by datafication is in the area of personal finance. It gives a kind of hidden sense of pride in having invented the term. In this way, critical scholarship might more effectively analyze such metaprocesses as mediatization and datafication precisely by recognizing rather than erasing audiences’ relation to both the everyday lifeworld and the public world of citizen action, regulatory intervention, and the wider society. This process of nodocentrism (Mejias, 2013) is similarly implicit in the social modelling that renders social flux into data-driven computer processes (Rieder, 2012). But there are many other ways in which aspects of the social world came to be counted or quantified during modernity, as a way of making it more ‘legible’ for governing (Poovey, 1998, chapters 2 and 7; Scott, 1990). What Privacy Is for. The dynamic that drives datafication as a social process then becomes apparent: the drive to “render [...] human behavior… into an analyzable form” in a process that in the review mentioned above was already called “the datafication of everything” (2013, p. 93-94). (cf. The research in the field is rapidly growing; it’s exciting and is making a valuable contribution to the understanding of the datafication of children. “Datafied” companies use data logging , which involves collecting real-world (or for many IT companies, system) data over a period of time, and then converting it to a digital format that can be reported on … In a world where data has a higher value, many organizations are rethinking how they use their data as a competitive strategy. This year we have turned our attention to Instagram video, Vine and the wild child of social media – Snapchat. Data analytics are now used to create digital footprints and credit scores for consumers and informal entrepreneurs, driving a shift from the digitisation of payments to the wider ‘datafication’ of citizens. “IoT could turn the world into data that could be used to make macro decisions on resource utilization,” Aoun said. According to the term definition, datafication includes the tools, technologies, methods and processes to utilize data and extract value. doi:10.1080/01972243.2017.1318327, Baack, S. (2015). Dataism, as this conviction is called, is so successful because masses of people — naively or unwittingly — trust their personal information to corporate platforms. T    The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. The Inevitable. (2013). This can take many forms, but very often involves an app or platform that collects wide-ranging data about users, aggregates and analyses the data, and generates micro-targeted marketing data and predictive insights about behaviours. Digital Inclusion and Data Profiling. A History of the Modern Fact. Such understanding involves a vision of “processes of datafication as a new way of interpreting the world”. (2018). More of your questions answered by our Experts. Datafication, according t o MayerSchoenberger and Cukier is the transformation of social action into online quantified data, thus allowing for real-time tracking and predictive analysis. Couldry, N., & Mejias, U. Zuboff, S. (2015). Liquifica- Datafication, the authors argued, involves much more than converting symbolic material into digital form, for it is datafication, not digitization, that “made [digital] text indexable and thus searchable” (2013, p. 84). Despite its clunkiness, the term datafication is necessary because it signals a historically new method of quantifying elements of life that until now were not quantified to this extent. Big other: surveillance capitalism and the prospects of an information civilization. Up until this time, datafication had been associated with the analysis of representations of our lives captured through … One approach is to consider the economic form constituted by the platforms across which so much data is generated and collected. We’re Surrounded By Spying Machines: What Can We Do About It? Datafication, on the other hand, refers to turning analogue processes and customer touchpoints into digital processes and digital customer touchpoints. Mejias, 2013) things that cannot be quantified, and so, in principle, cannot be datafied. Through this process, large domains of human life became susceptible to being processed via forms of analysis that could be automated on a large-scale. The process of quantifying life itself requires various components and conditions. In terms of structures, data can flow within various architectures which can include platforms, services, apps, databases, and hardware devices. Tech's On-Going Obsession With Virtual Reality. Social graphs and network visualisations have allowed corporations to extract information from the flow of life for descriptive and predictive use, aided by the incorporation of “smart” devices into these social circles (the so-called Internet of Things), which record not just interactions between people, but between people and things, or between things themselves. Marxist critiques of data production have mostly analysed the power dynamics inherent to datafication by focusing on a traditional interpretation of labour relations, looking at the "labour" that users perform by interacting with digital media and generating data (Fuchs and Mosco, 2017). Our experiments for automating these steps have resulted in a provisional process for datafication of … Data is the “material produced by abstracting the world into categories, measures and other representational forms [...] that constitute the building blocks f… What is ‘Datafication’? Data Colonialism: Rethinking Big Data’s Relation to the Contemporary Subject. [2] Kenneth Cukier and Victor Mayer-Schöenberger introduced the term Datafication to the broader lexicon in 2013. It is harvested in multiple ways by the devices and platforms people use, fed back into technologies for everyday activities, and informs how digital platforms operate and how we interact with them. Datafication can obviously benefit some of these actors, but it can also be used to discriminate against others on the basis of race, class, etc. New York: Cambridge University Press. A    In the technology industry, we’re used to lots of acronyms. (2017). José van Dijck, surveying various terms that emerged around data processes, also offers a critical interpretation of datafication as “a means to access [...] and monitor people’s behavior” (Van Dijck, 2014, p. 1478). Smart Cities: it’s a term you hear echoing around boardrooms, civic platforms and in the ICT sector. Areas of business, not uncover, these power relations to transform an organization to a data-driven enterprise culture! Environmental forces that shape our self-conception, interactions, and if something is not represented as a commodity whose is., can not be used to hearing new phrases that both startups and companies. Datafication, arguing that datafication threatens the basic rights of the flow of goods and matured! In M. Hildebrandt & E. de Vries ( Eds Sauder, M. ( 2007 ), 1904–1933,... Into a data format also uses data for individual autonomy have been expressed in terms actors. We stand outside datafication, regulation, labor, and what the comprises... 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